Eye Diseases


The eye lens:

The lens of the eye is located behind the iris (the colored part of the eye), and it is transparent in nature. It adjusts the focus of light or image on the retina (sensitive tissue located behind the eye), allowing us to see near and far objects clearly. In a normal eye, light passes through the transparent lens to the retina where light is changed into nerve signals to be sent to the brain via the optic nerve.

Cataract (White water):

It is the opacity that affects the lens of the eye, where the vision is cloudy, somewhat similar to looking in a frozen or blurry window, when white water forms, the lens begins to lose its transparency gradually until it becomes opaque, which prevents the passage of light through it, and then the vision becomes unclear (Such as: difficulty in reading, etc.), and it may affect a person at any age, in either or both eyes.


  • Cataract formed in the nucleus of the lens: which is the most common as it is related to age, and is caused primarily by yellowing of the lens over time, and may initially lead to a temporary improvement in seeing near objects (e.g.: reading).
  • Cataract formed in the outer layer of the lens: it is the layer surrounding the nucleus of the lens, where the opacity of the eye lens begins in the form of a white spot and develops slowly, until it interferes with the light passing through the lens and may make vision blurry.
  • Cataract formed under the posterior capsule of the lens: This type of opacity can cause problems with reading, sensitivity to light, or seeing halos around light, and it can develop faster than other types and symptoms appear within months.


With age, the lens becomes less flexible, less transparent, and thicker, in addition to age-related conditions and other medical conditions that cause tissue degeneration within the lens and the appearance of opacity within the lens. The child rarely develops cataract at birth due to heredity or because of an infection (e.g.: German measles) in the mother during pregnancy.

Risk factors:

  • Getting old.
  • Exposure to sunlight (UV rays).
  • Exposure to a blow or injury to the eye.
  • Diabetes.
  • Having high blood pressure.
  • Some medications, the most important of which is cortisone.
  • Prior exposure to blind eyes.
  • smoking.


Symptoms vary from one person to another, the most important of which are:

  • Gradual and painless visual impairment.
  • Blurry and lack of clarity in vision.
  • Sensitivity to bright light, especially when driving at night.
  • Seeing halos around lights.
  • Difficulty seeing at night.
  • Frequent change of glasses or contact lenses.
  • Gradually changing the color of the lens of the eye to white or brown in advanced cases.

These symptoms may also be a sign of other eye problems, so you should consult a doctor to check for symptoms.

When to see a doctor:

When you notice any changes in vision such as halos around the light or difficulty driving at night due to glare from headlights, eye pain or sudden headache.


Long-term total or partial vision loss.


The only treatment for cataract is surgical intervention: one of the most important surgical interventions is removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with implanting a new lens that lasts a lifetime, and this process has different methods in different cases.


No studies have shown how to prevent or slow its progression, but the following may be helpful, including:

  • Have regular eye exams.
  • Quit Smoking.
  • Follow the treatment plan for good control of diabetes.
  • Wear sunglasses that block ultraviolet rays.
  • Avoid using cortisone as much as possible.

Last Update : 03 September 2023 11:27 AM
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