It is a hereditary bleeding disorder that causes the blood to not clot properly, causing spontaneous bleeding, especially after injuries or surgery.

There are several different types of hemophilia, the most common are:

  • Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia): This type is caused by a deficiency or lack of clotting factor VIII.
  • Hemophilia B (Christmas disease): This type is caused by a deficiency or lack of clotting factor IX.

Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help stop bleeding. Hemophilia is caused by a mutation or change in a gene that provides instructions for making the clotting factor proteins necessary to form a blood clot, and this change or mutation can prevent the clotting protein from working properly, or lose it completely.


  • Bleeding in the joints. This can cause swelling, pain or tightness in the joints, most often affecting the knees, elbows and ankles.
  • Bleeding in the skin (bruising) or in muscles and tissues.
  • Bleeding in the mouth, gums, and the bleeding that is difficult to stop after losing a tooth.
  • Bleeding after circumcision.
  • Bleeding after injections (e.g.: vaccinations).
  • Bleeding in the infant’s head after a difficult birth.
  • Blood in urine or stool.
  • Frequent nosebleed that is difficult to stop.


  • Bleeding inside the joints can lead to chronic joint diseases and pain.
  • Bleeding in the head and sometimes in the brain can cause long-term problems (such as convulsions and paralysis).
  • Death can occur if bleeding cannot be stopped, or if it occurs in a vital organ such as the brain.

The best way to treat hemophilia is to replace the missing blood clotting factor with a commercially manufactured one so that the blood clots properly. This is done through an intravenous injection. Sufferers can learn how to administer these injections themselves so that they can stop bleeding attacks.

Instructions for people with hemophilia:

  • Perform a comprehensive examination annually and systematic tests for blood-borne infections.
  • Get the hepatitis A and B vaccine.
  • Treat bleeding early and appropriately.
  • Exercise and maintain a healthy weight to protect the joints.
  • Avoid sports that require physical contact.
  • Caution when taking medications (such as aspirin and ibuprofen); Some of them can affect the blood ability to clot.
  • Take care of your teeth and gums and have regular check-ups with your doctor.

Last Update : 06 September 2023 03:23 PM
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