Nervous System


It is damage to a part of the brain that occurs due to the interruption of blood supply to the brain for a long time, which causes the loss of the function that this part of the brain controls.

Before a stroke (transient ischemic attack or mini stroke):
Transient ischemic attack (silent transient ischemic stroke): occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a short period of time and temporary symptoms appear that last from a few minutes to a few hours, and do not cause permanent damage to the brain, as it is a serious warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future and should not be ignored, and is usually caused by:
  • Decreased blood flow in a narrowed part of the main artery that carries blood to the brain.
  • A blood clot traveling from another part of the body (such as the heart) to the brain.
  • narrowing and blockage of small blood vessels in the brain, which leads to difficulty in blood flow for a short period of time.
Emergency care should be sought immediately for signs and symptoms of a minor ischemic attack. Symptoms include:
  • Numbness (paresthesia) or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding.
  • Difficulty seeing in both eyes or one of them.
  • Difficulty walking, dizziness, and loss of balance.
  • Severe and sudden headache, which may be accompanied by nausea.
Types of Stroke:
Ischemic (thrombotic) stroke: it occurs due to a blockage of the blood vessels that carry blood to the brain by fatty deposits or a blood clot (blood clot) originating somewhere in the body, usually the heart.
Hemorrhagic stroke: it occurs due to the bursting or rupture of blood vessels, which results in swelling and pressure in the brain, and leads to damage to cells and tissues in it, and in most cases may lead to death. It has several causes, one of which is irregular high blood pressure.

Causes of Stroke:
The brain needs a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients in order to function normally, and when a stroke occurs, the oxygen supply to the brain is stopped, which leads to the death of brain cells after a few minutes. This results in a deficit in brain function, which may include problems with movement, speech, thinking, controlling bowel and bladder functions, and other vital functions of the body, and the cause of its occurrence is still unknown.

Risk factors:
  • Advance age, especially over 40 years.
  • Family history of heart disease and stroke.
  • Previous transient ischemic attacks (warning stroke).
  • Previous or current blood clots.
  • Hypertension.
  • Diabetic.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Diseases of the heart and arteries (eg: atrial fibrillation).
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Taking drugs or drinking alcohol.
Signs and symptoms of a stroke often develop suddenly and then may improve temporarily or slowly worsen, depending on the type of stroke and the area in the brain affected. Knowing the signs and symptoms of a stroke can save lives, which include:
  • Sudden facial weakness or sagging, or vision problems.
  • Sudden weakness or numbness in one or both arms.
  • Difficulty speaking, slurred speech, or slurred speech.
Time is very important in the treatment of stroke, so the earlier treatment is initiated, the better the chances of recovery. Therefore, the signs and symptoms of a stroke may be alike among cases, and the only way to be sure is to see a doctor as soon as possible.

  • The infection is often in the chest and urinary tract.
  • Swelling of the brain.
  • Ulcers in the skin.
  • Paralysis or loss of muscle movement.
  • Difficulty speaking or swallowing.
  • Memory loss and thinking difficulties.
  • Depression.
  • Clots in the leg veins.
The doctor needs to evaluate the type of stroke and the areas affected in the brain, and to identify other possible causes for the symptoms (such as: a brain tumor or a reaction to a drug), so the doctor may use several tests to determine the risk of stroke, including CT scan, MRI, cardiovascular tests.

Treatment depends on the type of stroke, as well as the time since symptoms began but often includes:
  • Medicines: usually one or more different medicines are taken, some of which may be taken immediately and for a short period (such as: blood thinners), while others may need to be taken for a long term, but when diagnosed immediately, the patient is given intravenous thrombolytic, to improve blood flow to the part of the brain, but it should be used in the first three to four hours after having a stroke.
  • Surgery: some may need it, as the clot is removed; To restore blood flow to the brain, this is done by inserting a catheter into an artery, usually in the groin, and then passing a small device through the catheter into the damaged artery in the brain. This procedure is done within the first six hours of acute stroke symptoms.
  • Rehabilitation: Some patients may need long-term treatment, as they need physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychological therapy, nutrition, and bladder control.
Stroke Prevention
  • Identifying the warning signs and symptoms of a stroke is the first step to ensuring you receive prompt medical help.
  • Controlling health problems (such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol, etc.).
  • Follow a healthy diet.
  • Do regular physical activity.
  • Quit Smoking.
  • Control your blood pressure with healthy lifestyle changes and take blood pressure medications as directed.

Last Update : 20 August 2023 10:09 AM
Reading times :